Chestnut is an ancient tree as evidenced by various findings of the Bronze Age. Chestnuts are an important food for many cultures and especially for China, Korea, Japan, North America and Mediterranean and have been cultivated for over 6,000 years in China and 3,000 years in Europe. The chestnuts of the Mouzaki area are at an altitude of over 250 meters and have been degraded the last years. The tree blooms in spring and the chestnuts ripen from early September to late November, depending on the conditions and variety. Each tree can produce from 30-50 kg of chestnuts. Mediterranean chestnuts, while maintaining biodiversity, can be productive with economic benefits to society.